a Department of Architecture of South East University, Nanjing China
b Business School of Hohai University Nanjing, China
Northern Nigeria is predominantly occupied by Hausa-
Keywords:Buildings, Factors, Hausa-
1.1. Background to the study
Nigeria officially known as the Federal Republic of Nigeria has been the site of numerous kingdoms and tribal states over the millennia with more than 500 ethnic groups, with varying languages, customs and traditions; making it a country of rich ethnic diversity. Nigeria originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, with the merging of the Northern and Southern Nigeria Protectorates in 1914 and became a formally independent federation in 1960 (Adam, 2011).
Northern Nigeria is predominantly occupied by Hausa-
The Ancient structures of the Hausa-
The architecture of the Hausa-
1.2. Research Problem
The advent of globalization such as advances in transportation (e.g. steam locomotives, steam ships, jet engine, container ships etc.) provides a safer and conducive method of transporting goods and services from one place to another, this impede and hinder the ancient tradition of the caravan, Saharan, trans-
Moreover, the problem of replacement of the traditional institutions which preserve the culture and traditions of the people with modern governmental institutions. Modernization and advances in Building construction has also affected the perception of the people in Northern Nigeria about the values and pride of their traditional building construction. The combination of these challenges further compound the problems faced by Vernacular Architecture of Northern Nigeria (VANN) in terms of continuity, development, sustainability of the concept and practice.
1.3. Research Aim
The aim of this research paper is to assess and discuss the factors shaping Vernacular Architecture of Northern Nigeria with the view of identifying, ranking and examining the impact of how such factors shaped the VANN.
1.4. Research Hypotheses
To address the research problem fully and to achieve the aim, the following hypotheses were formulated and statistically tested:
1.5. Research Methodology
The main sources of data were from journals, conference / seminar / workshop papers, text books, newspapers, magazines and the internet sources etc., which were used to review literatures in the VA field. This helped in identifying some factors shaping VANN. These factors formed the main body of the questionnaires which was structured using a 5-
2. Literature Review
2.1. Factors Shaping Vernacular Architecture of Northern Nigeria
The Saharan and the sub-
Socialization is a term used by sociologists, social psychologists, anthropologists, political scientists, and educationalists to refer to the lifelong process of inheriting and disseminating norms, customs, values and ideologies, providing an individual with the skills and habits necessary for participating within their own society. Socialization is thus "the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained" (Clausen, 1968; Macionis, 2010).
Unlike many other living species, whose behavior is biologically set, humans need social experiences to learn their culture and to survive (Macionis et al., 2011). Although cultural variability manifests in the actions, customs, and behaviors of whole social groups (societies), the most fundamental expression of culture is found at the individual level. This expression can only occur after an individual has been socialized by his or her parents, family, extended family, and extended social networks (wikipedia.org). As such, the Hausa-
2.1.2. Cultural Amalgamation
As the name indicates culture is simply the total way of life of a particular group of people while amalgamation is defined as the coming together of two or more different groups to form a new one which is stronger and better than all the groups' separately. Cultural amalgamation happens when two cultures mix to form types of new culture. The Hausa-
As such we can say that the Hausa city states emerged as southern terminals of the Trans-
2.1.3. Borrowed Religious Practices
Islam is the predominant and historically established religion of the Hausa people. Islam has been present in Hausa-
"Maguzanchi", as an African Traditional Religion, was practiced extensively before Islam in the Northern Nigeria. In the more remote areas of Hausa land, the people continue to practice Maguzanchi. Closer to urban areas, it is not as common, but with elements still held among the beliefs of urban dwellers. Practices include the sacrifice of animals for personal ends. People of urbanized areas tend to retain a "cult of spirit possession," known as "Bori" which incorporates the old religion's elements of African Traditional Religion and magic (Adeline, 2011).
With the arrival of Fodiawa trio, which bring about the emergence of Sokkoto caliphate, generally recognized as commencing in 1808 (with the successful jihad of 'Uthman Dan Fodio). They brought about so many rules and regulations which are adopted in their land tenure system and architecture. Some of them are applicable to the morphology of compounds as the nucleus of urban formation in cities of the Sokoto caliphate and other regions of the Hausa-
2.1.4. Exchange of Ideas
The Hausas are one of the ethnic groups living in the Sahel-
Trade involves the transfer of the ownership inform of buying and selling of goods or services, from one person or entity to another, in exchange for money, goods or services. The original form of trade and or barter, saw the direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services. Barter is trading things without the use of money (Samuelson, 1939). Trade was the key to the emergence of organized communities in the savannah portions of Nigeria. Prehistoric inhabitants adjusting to the encroaching desert were widely scattered by the third millennium BC, when the desertification of the Sahara began. Trans-
The Hausa people are recognized as merchants and traders from their early days, this allows them to travel to very far places and also enable them to experience different environments. This provides the opportunity to adopt and assimilate many cultures and traditions throughout their trade routes some of which can be distinctly recognized from the very few existing traditional buildings in the Northern Nigeria.
2.1.6. Building Materials
The three well-
The figures below show the pictorial (photos) representation of some Vernacular Architectural buildings in some cities within the Northern Nigeria.
3. Data Presentation and Analysis
3.1. Results from the Administered Questionnaires
The primary data for this research work was obtained through manually distributed questionnaires to the various construction project professionals practicing within the Northern Nigeria's built environment. These includes but not limited to: Architects, Quantity Surveyors, Civil Engineers, Project Managers and Construction Managers etc. The responses obtained are shown in the table 1 below.
The following can be deduced from the table above:
i. 600 questionnaires were manually distributed and 379 questionnaires (representing 63.17%) were retrieved, while 221 (representing 36.83%) were not returned.
ii. 350 questionnaires (representing 58.33%) were complete and usable whereas 29 questionnaires (representing 4.83%) were incomplete.
iii. As such, the response rate was good.
Among the respondents were various construction project professionals practicing within the Northern Nigeria's built environment. These includes but not limited to: Architects, Quantity Surveyors, Civil Engineers, Project Managers, Construction Managers and others etc. The responses obtained by discipline is shown in the table 2 below.
It can be deduced from the table above that: Architects have the highest response rate with 20.6%, followed by Construction managers with 18.3%, Project managers 17.4%, Quantity surveyors with 15.1%, Civil engineers with 14.6% while other professionals' (Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, Surveyors, Estate Managers etc.) have 14%. All together; the responses from Architects, Construction managers and Project managers accounts for more than half of the responses obtained (56.3%).
Table 3 below shows the assessment of the factors shaping VANN based on a 5-
The respective mean item score (weighted average) values were analyzed based on the range below to allow for a remark (from 4.5 -
From the above table, the following deductions were made regarding Factors Shaping Vernacular Architecture of Northern Nigeria:
i. One of the factors was Strongly Agreed,
ii. Four of the factors were Agreed,
iii. Also, one of the factors was deemed Neutral / undecided by the respondents
The respondents strongly agreed with only Socialization as the major factor shaping VANN; while also agreeing with four factors namely: cultural amalgamation, exchange of ideas, Sub-
Socialization which allows the Hausa-
Exchange of ideas was ranked Third; these ranges from their daily life routines down to their building designs which have special aura around them and are of various shape and sizes as perceived by the respondents. Cultural amalgamation ranked fourth; This factor is due to trans-
3.2. Testing of Hypotheses
The hypotheses formulated for this research work was tested using T-
From the hypotheses computation in the table above it can be deduced that; With 5-
This research work identified six factors shaping VANN based on the reviewed literature, which forms the main body of the questionnaire distributed to various construction project professionals practicing within the Northern Nigeria's built environment. These include: Architects, Quantity Surveyors, Civil Engineers, Project Managers, Construction Managers and Others (Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, Surveyors, Estate Managers and Building Engineers/Technologist etc.). 600 number of questionnaires were manually distributed and 350 questionnaires (representing 58.33%) were complete and usable whereas 29 questionnaires (representing 4.83%) were incomplete, while 221 (representing 36.83%) were not returned. As such, the response rate was good. Among the respondents, Architects have the highest response rate with 20.6%, followed by Construction managers with 18.3%, Project managers 17.4%, Quantity surveyors with 15.1%, Civil engineers with 14.6% while other professionals' (Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, Surveyors, Estate Managers etc.) have 14%.
The respondents also strongly agreed with only Socialization as the major factor shaping VANN; while also agreeing with four factors namely: cultural amalgamation, exchange of ideas, Sub-
The following recommendations were proffered:
i. There is need for extensive research work on the Vernacular Architecture of Northern Nigeria by the indigenous scholars especially on the Historical aspects of the ancient and traditional buildings. These may open up some interesting indigenous aspects of the VANN
ii. There is also need for further extensive studies to examine the impact of each of the factors identified in this study on How it shapes Vernacular Architecture.
iii. Further research work may be needed to identify and evaluate more factors shaping VANN.
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