Department of Estate Management & Valuation, School of Environmental Studies, the Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Nigeria
Despite intendment of the Land Use Act, 1978 to bring all land under the control of respective State Governors, there remains a dichotomy of access to urban land: formal (government) allocation and informal (traditional landowner's) route. The general concern has always been delayed and initial high costs of getting land making the formal market inaccessible to poor citizens. This paper conducted a study of informal residential land market in selected localities of Ibadan, Nigeria to ascertain whether it constitutes a blessing or curse to the poor. Data elicited through field observation and questionnaire administered on informal participants were analyzed statistically. Among other findings, virtually all transacted lands in the informal market were in peripheral locations lacking efficient layout and deficient of basic infrastructure. Invariably, additional sums were being incurred to provide and maintain these facilities. Furthermore, to secure recognizable title to give economic value to the land obtained from this market, re-
Keywords: Access to land, informal market, infrastructure, sustainability, urban poor
In Nigeria, access to land at both rural and urban centres followed various customary laws until the promulgation of the Land Use Decree, 1978 (which later transformed into an Act and formed part of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution). Customary laws often place emphasis on communal ownership of land with restrictive opportunities for alienation to non-
With the foregoing, it is not a surprise that a vast majority of physical expansion of many Nigerian towns and cities take the form of informal settlements on land acquired through the back-
The general perception remains that acquisition of land through this informal market is cheap and relatively stress-
This paper is set to examine informal land supply to ascertain whether or not it is really a relief to the poor in terms of sustainable land, housing and urban environment. Research questions that arose and have been addressed are: What informed the recourse to demand for residential land in the informal market? Do the patrons of this market envisage additional costs of providing pertinent infrastructure themselves? What is the state of housing and environmental quality within the area of study? What corrective measures are required to ameliorate any observed inadequacies towards ensuring sustainable housing and environment for residents within the area of study? The city of Ibadan has been found suitable for this study because its exponential expansion was observed to have been anchored on the informal system of residential land delivery as would be elaborated under literature review and description of study area in the sections following.
2. Literature Review
This research takes recourse to theoretical framework that the quality of life of a population -
According to Agbola and Agunbiade (2009), sustainable land development is a multi-
In the study of Honiara and Port Mores by Chand and Yala (2007), informal settlement was referred to as groups of households in localities and in conditions that contravene the laws and regulations of the state. More specifically, the breaches include those relating to the physical planning and building requirements of urban authorities and other state agencies. They concluded that informal urban settlements are a growing and permanent feature of Pacific towns and cities exhibiting features like overcrowding, inadequate basic services, crime, conflict and poverty. Also, UN-
Incidentally however, the scenes of study of most of these authors bear no resemblance to Ibadan. While their 'informal urban settlements' are often located on marginal land, including riverbanks, steep gullies and mangrove swamps, and/or on land with disputed ownership unlike Ibadan metropolis where portions developed informally are located on good and build-
One factor that apparently facilitates informal settlement is the ease of access to residential land. Though Chand and Yala (2007) agreed that access to land is a concern to the urbanites, it was observed that within Melanesia, it is not the shortage of land per se that is the issue, but rather the lack of entitled/registered land. Settlers were found not having the patience for formal systems to deliver them tenure security. Instead informal arrangements often evolved to meet the demands of the settlers. This happens because informal settlements and slums are caused by a range of interrelated factors, including population growth and rural-
Exponential growth of urbanization in Nigeria immediately after independence in 1960 created problems of land accessibility to both governments and people for housing and other developments which eventually prompted the enactment of Land Use Act in 1978. Apart from this, the promulgation of Land Use Act by the Federal Government of Nigeria was to actualise the recommendation of UN-
To consolidate these objectives the Nigerian government adopted the Sites and Services Scheme (SSS) in 1986 as a method for housing delivery through increased supply of serviced plots at affordable cost (Ajanlekoko, 2001 and Olaniran & Adedokun, 2016). This was to make access to land very easy, convenient and at affordable cost to members of the public. The goals of the programme were to provide serviced land for housing development, industrial and commercial activities in a well-
Perhaps, in a controvertible manner, the Act recognizes the parallel existence of informal land. Sections 34(2) and (5) permit owners of already developed and undeveloped parcels of land respectively (including Section 35(1) for leasehold interest) to hold onto and enjoy them wholly or partly. Where hitherto land owners were to be dispossessed on account of their holding being in excess of ½ hectare according to Section 34 (6)(b), there is no provision for compensation whatsoever. State Governments (who hold and administer the state land in trust for the people) also failed to evoke preventive measure of section 34(7) and punitive provision of section 34 (8) for contravention of the law on plot subdivision and transaction (, under the punishment the offender is liable on conviction to imprisonment of one year or a fine of N5, 000.00). Thus, the Act is clogged with implementation problems whereby land-
Many studies have however advanced reasons why PML and all government's efforts so far failed to supply adequate number of formal residential land for the increasing urban population in the country (Omirin, 2003; Agbato, 2006; Oyedele, 2008; Olaniran, 2012; Olaniran, 2015; Olaniran and Adedokun, 2016; Olaniran, 2016). Omirin (2003) found that formal land supply could not cope with surging demand for residential land. It was also observed that few people who are mostly high-
For example, in 2009 at Samanda Government Reservation Area (GRA) a medium plot of 1296 m2 was allocated for N3, 784,878.90, at Kolapo Isola GRA in the same year a medium plot of 1746.246m2 cost N3, 758,100.00. At Apete GRA in 2009 a high-
Consequent upon the foregoing, informal land delivery and development evolved to take care of the poor. However, there is problem of under regulation of private land development, leading to unplanned or ribbon development of land in the urban periphery (Olaniran, 2016). Prospective developers of various social and economic classes secure residential lands of desired sizes -
They are devoid of planned layout, presence of potable water, availability and regularity of electricity supply, quality of access routes, efficiency of drainage system, refuse and sewage disposal, provisions for security and access to health facilities. These are indeed the variables that differentiate shelter from housing (Ashaolu, 2015 & UN-
Today the whole of Ibadan land or all the 11 Local Government Councils seem to have been or come under the intense pressure exerted by urban expansion of the largest city south of sub-
To this end, inhabitants of informal areas have introduced, to the extent possible, 'user-
Accordingly, the payment for provision of infrastructure by the affected people, usually on continuous basis, increases the overall cost when taken together with the initial cost of the bare land. Perhaps, this might have brought the cost of land in informal area to the same level with, if not more than, the cost of formal land and eventually become anti-
3. The Study Location-
Ibadan, the capital of Oyo State, Nigeria, is located between longitudes 7°2' and 7°40'E and latitudes 3°35' and 4°10'N. The city has been having rapid growth both in territorial boundary and population since 1829 to become the largest indigenous city in tropical Africa. It is about 24 km. from Akufo (after Apete) in the West to Egbeda along Ife Road in the East and about 28 km. from Moniya along Oyo Road in the North to Omi Adio along Abeokuta Road in the South. This gives 672 km2 measured with the aid of google earth (Olaniran, 2016).
Presently, Ibadan land is divided into eleven local government councils with informal land delivery system thriving across six of them: Akinyele, Egbeda, Ido, Lagelu, Oluyole, and Ona Ara. Acquisition of land for residential use by public authority (under British system of administration) started early in twentieth century in Ibadan. The erstwhile Ibadan District Government allocated official residence (quarters) to government officers (both expatriate and selected indigenous staff) and granted leasehold interest in Government Reservation Areas in 1903 to European traders. The GRAs were at Agodi, Onireke, Jericho and Iyaganku. Mokola layout was allocated in 1920.As at 2006, there were 63 schemes with about 18,000 residential plots formally allocated among a population of more than 2,550,593 and 550, 000 households, as per 2006 estimates (www.nigerianstat.gov.ng).
However, succeeding authorities could not sustain the tempo and informal residential land allocation continues mostly in the eastern and northern sides of Lagos -
Purposive sampling of residential property developers was carried out in early January 2017 across informal settlements within Ibadan metropolis. This was achieved with the use of structured questionnaire survey that sought to know among other things, whether the respondents had made prior attempts at obtaining land through the formal route, what led to their resort to informal market, their assessment of facilities and cost of informal settlement living and whether if giving the opportunity, they would be ready to trade their existing residence for a formal location. Forty-
5. Discussion of Findings
Table 1 present the socio-
Table 2 depicts the different circumstances and background to the demand for informal land within Ibadan metropolitan area. Only 3 (or 7%) of the respondents had ever applied for allocation of land from the government with just one of them successful. The remaining 39 (93%) never made the move for reasons ranging from inability to afford the required monetary requirements (55%), lack of understanding of the procedures involved (29%), perception of its bias towards a class of people (17%) to total ignorance of the existence of such opportunity (about 10%) among others. On why resort was therefore made to the informal market, some 69% saw land there being relatively affordable or cheap, more than 41% were influenced by a trusted third party (invariably, prior landowners in the area) while 9 (over 21%) of the respondents considered such location being appropriate for their nature of occupation (often-
As at the time the respondents entered into the informal settlements, 88% reported no single complimentary housing infrastructure in terms of motorable access road, electricity and water was present in their area (see Table 3). Findings from Table 3 also revealed that virtually all respondents are bearing the costs of water and security to lives and property on their own. Water, we understand come either by private open/deep well, borehole or by procuring from nearest private commercial borehole providers while in most cases, security to lives and property was arranged through communal vigilante system with members making monthly contribution.
Public institutions like schools and health centres were reported to be fairly available within commuting distances, as subsequent government interventions. The planlessness of the settlements occupied by respondents is evident from the discovery that only about 26% of them have their developments on land approved by the relevant authorities. On the whole however, about 74% of the respondents expressed non-
The study respondents were requested to present estimates of their additional housing costs that come in the nature of infrastructure provision and maintenance. Findings in this respect were aggregated and averaged in Table 4 indicating that about N20,300.00 are spent annually to maintain basic infrastructure even in their deplorable conditions, apart from monthly bills still payable for electricity (in spite all supporting infrastructure privately provided not being reimbursed). This is higher where well/bore bole was sunk to access water and electric poles, wire and transformer were purchased.
In Table 5, a comparison of costs of formal with informal plots in some areas revealed there was no significant difference. For instance, at Apete GRA in 2009 a high-
Apart from the foregoing findings from respondents, the following general observations were made in the course of the survey:
i) There are haphazard land allocations with developments on as little as a quarter of standard 50 feet by 100feet plot co-
ii) Akin to 1) above are the presence of one or two-
iii) Majority of the buildings were ill-
iv) Most of the infrastructure facilities on ground were in deplorable conditions. For instance, many of the roads are earthen and only seasonally motorable with electricity poles and wiring done haphazardly, drain channels grossly inefficient (whenever available) as they are not coordinated for continuous flow;
v) The dominant residential developments co-
vi) Overall environmental and physical outlooks were filthy.
6. Conclusion and Recommendations
Findings from this study indicate informal land delivery system in Nigeria is a creation of policy inadequacies. The informal land market sector has invariably become the resort of the poor and disadvantaged class in the society. The environment is typically unplanned with only a few seeking and obtaining piece-
To ameliorate the foregoing conditions in Ibadan and similarly affected Nigerian cities, the following recommendations are proffered:
i) Corrective measures by way of valorizing existing residential property interests with minimal immediate planning intervention (attended with fair compensation) whereby all the stock of present developments can be registered for subsequent control. This can take cue with improvements on the initiative of Ogun State's Homeowners' Charter programme;
ii) Ensuring all ill-
iii) Further indiscriminate expansion of informal settlements to be curtailed through affordable government layout plans in abutting peripheral locations with provision for infrastructure facilities that could be self-
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